Although typically viewed as a feature of innate immune responses, microbial pattern recognition is increasingly acknowledged as a function of particular cells nominally categorized within the adaptive immune system. Groundbreaking research over the past three years has shown how unconventional human T-cells carrying invariant or semi-invariant TCRs that are not restricted by classical MHC molecules sense microbial compounds via entirely novel antigen presenting pathways. This review will focus on the innate-like recognition of non-self metabolites by Vγ9/Vδ2 T-cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and germline-encoded mycolyl-reactive (GEM) T-cells, with an emphasis on early immune responses in acute infection.
Liuzzi, A. R., McLaren, J. E., Price, D. A., & Eberl, M. (2015, October 1). Early innate responses to pathogens: Pattern recognition by unconventional human T-cells. Current Opinion in Immunology. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2015.06.002