The extent to which visual form versus higher-level information is used to identify briefly flashed words is assessed in a perceptual identification task. In this task, a word is briefly flashed, post-masked, and a decision is made between two alternatives. The availability of visual (e.g., case or color) and higher-level information (e.g., abstract letter codes, phonology, and meaning) was manipulated by varying the information that discriminates the alternatives. Performance was better with higher-level than with visual information when pattern post-masks were used, but the reverse occurred without masking. The authors conclude that both higher-level and visual-form information can be used to identify words with the strategy depending on the information available at the time of the choice. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sanborn, A. N., Malmberg, K. J., & Shiffrin, R. M. (2004). High-level effects of masking on perceptual identification. In Vision Research (Vol. 44, pp. 1427–1436). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2004.01.004