With their optically transparent appearance, zebrafish larvae are readily imaged with optical-resolution photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (OR-PAM). Previous OR-PAM studies have mapped endogenous chromophores (e.g. melanin and hemoglobin) within larvae; however, anatomical features cannot be imaged with OR-PAM alone due to insufficient optical absorption. We have previously reported on the photoacoustic radiometry (PAR) technique, which can be used simultaneously with OR-PAM to generate images dependent upon the optical attenuation properties of a sample. Here we demonstrate application of the duplex PAR/PA technique for label-free imaging of the anatomy and vasculature of zebrafish larvae in vivo at 200 and 400 MHz ultrasound detection frequencies. We then use the technique to assess the effects of anti-angiogenic drugs on the development of the larval vasculature. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of simultaneous PAR/PA for acquiring anatomical images of optically transparent samples in vivo, and its potential applications in assessing drug efficacy and embryonic development.
Moore, M. J., El-Rass, S., Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., Wen, X. Y., & Kolios, M. C. (2018). Simultaneous ultra-high frequency photoacoustic microscopy and photoacoustic radiometry of zebrafish larvae in vivo. Photoacoustics, 12, 14–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pacs.2018.08.004