The differences in eradication rates reported in clinical trials aiming to cure Helicobacter pylori infection cannot be entirely explained by the type of regimen, bacterial resistance, or lack of compliance. Using data from a clinical trial, a logistic regression model was constructed to determine whether cagA status, assessed by PCR, affects the outcome of eradication. Resistance to clarithromycin (10% of the strains) predicted failure perfectly. In the model (n = 156), a cagA-lacking strain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], (1.1 to 4.7), tobacco smoking OR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.0), and a double dose of proton pump inhibitor in the treatment regimen (OR = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.7) were associated with the treatment outcome. The exact role of cagA in the outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy has not been explored. However, the type of histological lesions which it causes in the gastric mucosa may be implicated. Regardless of the mechanism involved, cagA status is a good predictive marker of eradication outcome.
Broutet, N., Marais, A., Lamouliatte, H., De Mascarel, A., Samoyeau, R., Salamon, R., & Mégraud, F. (2001). cagA status and eradication treatment outcome of anti-Helicobacter pylori triple therapies in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39(4), 1319–1322. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.39.4.1319-1322.2001