Over the past decade, there have been tremendous advancements in anticoagulation therapies for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Although the non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) demonstrated favorable clinical outcomes compared with warfarin overall, the decision to anticoagulate and the choice of appropriate agent in patients with AF and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are a particularly complex issue. CKD and ESRD increase both the risk of stroke and bleeding, and since all of the NOACs undergo various levels of renal clearance, renal dysfunction inevitably affects the pharmacokinetics of the drug in each patient. Furthermore, the randomized controlled clinical trials of each NOAC versus warfarin often did not include patients with advanced CKD or ESRD. In this focused review, we describe the available evidence supporting the use of NOACs for prevention of stroke in patients with AF with concomitant advanced CKD or ESRD. Although questions of safety and appropriate use of these new agents in CKD and ESRD remain, NOACs offer a significant step forward in the anticoagulation management of at-risk patients with AF.
Nishimura, M., & Hsu, J. C. (2018, January 1). Non–Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and End-Stage Renal Disease. American Journal of Cardiology. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.09.030