Traditional models of how cooperative strategies succeed in evolution have largely focused on social interactions among individuals and selection acting at kin and group levels. A recent study at the genetic level suggests that cooperation may also be promoted by the evolution of gene-trait relationships that limit the range of possible cheating mechanisms that can evolve.
Velicer, G. J. (2005, March 8). Evolution of cooperation: Does selfishness restraint lie within? Current Biology. Cell Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2005.02.045