Allogeneic stem cell transplantation may overcome the adverse impact of myelofibrosis on the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndrome

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Abstract

Purpose: Myelofibrosis (MF) may serve as a poor prognostic factor in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This study explored the impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) on the outcome of MDS patients with MF. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen MDS patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. Based on the degree of MF, we divided the patients into 2 groups: grade 0–1 (MF-0/1) and grade 2–3 (MF-2/3) groups. The clinical features, treatments, and prognosis in MDS patients with MF were analyzed. Results: Forty-three (13.6%) patients were diagnosed as MF-2/3. Complex karyotypes were more common in the MF-2/3 compared to MF-0/1 groups (P = 0.002). The overall response rate (ORR) of cytoreduction was 49.0%, along with 53.3% in the MF-0/1 and 16.7% in MF-2/3 groups (P = 0.017). In total, 141 patients underwent allo-HSCT, including 121 in the MF-0/1 and 20 in MF-2/3 groups. The median time to neutrophil reconstruction was 12 (range: 7–34) and 14 (range: 10–45) days (P = 0.005), and platelet reconstruction was 14 (range: 8–68) and 18 (range: 8–65) days (P = 0.045) in the MF-0/1 and MF-2/3 groups, respectively. However, the cumulative incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment achieved at day + 30 was not different between the two groups (P = 0.107, P = 0.303, respectively). Non-relapse mortality, relapse, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were similar between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Among patients with allo-HSCT, the 2-year overall survival (OS) was 68.5% (95% CI: 60.1–76.9%) and 68.4% (95% CI: 47.4–89.4%) in the MF-0/1 and MF-2/3 groups, respectively, (P = 0.636). Among patients without allo-HSCT, the 2-year OS was 49.9% (95% CI: 40.7–59.1%) and 19.2% (95% CI: 0–39.6%) in the MF-0/1 and MF-2/3 groups, respectively, (P = 0.002). In multivariate cox analysis, complex karyotype was an unfavorable factor for relapse (HR, 4.16; P = 0.006), disease-free survival (DFS) (HR, 2.16; P = 0.020), and OS (HR, 2.47; P = 0.009) post-transplantation. Conclusion: Patients with MF-2/3 have more complex karyotypes and lower ORR of cytoreduction in MDS. Among patients without allo-HSCT, patients with MF-2/3 have a worse prognosis than those with MF-0/1. However, the adverse impact of MF on prognosis may be overcome by allo-HSCT.

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Zeng, X., Xuan, L., Fan, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhao, K., Zhou, Y., … Dai, M. (2021). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation may overcome the adverse impact of myelofibrosis on the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndrome. Experimental Hematology and Oncology, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40164-021-00238-x

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