Objective To identify factors associated with long-term treatment success after catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) involving the ilio-femoral vein. Material and methods This was a non-randomised observational cohort study. From 1999 to 2013, 191 consecutive patients (203 limbs) attending a tertiary vascular centre at Gentofte University Hospital, Denmark underwent CDT. All patients had ultrasonically verified acute ilio-femoral DVT with open distal popliteal vein and calf veins. Patients were seen in the outpatient clinic 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months, and annually thereafter following the DVT. Successful outcome was defined as patent deep veins without reflux on Duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS). Data were collected prospectively as per protocol and analysed retrospectively. Results Median age was 27 years (range 14–74 years) and overall median lysis time was 56 h (range 22–146 h). A stent was placed in 106 limbs (52%). Six patients had major bleeding. The median follow-up was 5 years (range 1 month–14.3 years). The cumulative rate of patients with deep patent veins without reflux at 7 years was 79%. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that symptom duration >2 weeks (hazard ratio (HR) 2.78, 95% CI 1.14–6.73) and chronic post-thrombotic lesions (HR 19.3, 95% CI 7.29–51.2) were significantly associated with poorer outcome, while the pulse-spray technique (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05–0.48) was associated with better outcome. Age, gender, side, IVC atresia, stenting, and lysis duration did not affect outcome. Conclusion In this observational study of CDT for ilio-femoral DVT it was demonstrated that symptom duration less than 2 weeks, absence of chronic post-thrombotic lesions and use of the pulse-spray technique for CDT resulted in better primary patency including normal valve function in the long term.
Foegh, P., Jensen, L. P., Klitfod, L., Broholm, R., & Bækgaard, N. (2017). Editor’s Choice – Factors Associated with Long-Term Outcome in 191 Patients with Ilio-Femoral DVT Treated With Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 53(3), 419–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.12.023