Studies show that in time education was treated /approached by the great thinkers and educators of the world, by researchers and teachers from two fundamental perspectives: one from above and one from below. Each approach captures certain view points but fails to capture others. Therefore in order to have a more complex image on education it is necessary for those involved in education to give each perspective its deserved weight. This way, we can have a more comprehensive look of the educational phenomenon.
Albu, G. (2012). Education seen from above vs. education seen from below. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 33, pp. 747–750). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.221