EEG changes during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and postoperative neuropsychological deficit: The effect of bubble and membrane oxygenators

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Abstract

Objective: Quantitative electroencephalography was used during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to determine the point in time of most neuronal functional change which may result in postoperative neuropsychological deficit. It was also used to determine any relationship between quantitative electroencephalography changes and type of oxygenator used in surgery. Methods: We studied 61 coronary artery bypass graft patients. Anaesthesia included thiopental, fentanyl and N2O. Surgery was performed with hypothermic bypass (28°C), arterial pressure of 50-70 mmHg, and alpha-stat, using bubble (Harvey 1700), or membrane (Cobe CML) oxygenators, both with arterial line filters (Pall 40 μm). Results: The main finding was a significant increase in delta power at the end of perfusion (P < 0.01), which showed a positive association with delta power before the start of perfusion. Marked quantitative electroencephalography change at the end of perfusion was not related to systemic hypotension, temperature, type of oxygenator, bypass time, or patient age. Intraoperative quantitative electroencephalography changes found in most patients were transient and could not be related to postoperative cerebral function. However, 16 of the 18 patients who had neuropsychological deficit 2 months after surgery, also had a significant quantitative electroencephalography change at the end of perfusion. Conclusions: While no difference in anaesthetic technique was found between patients, the variation in quantitative electroencephalography power before perfusion may indicate a difference in individual response to anaesthetic. Usefulness of quantitative electroencephalography to predict postoperative cerebral functional deficit remains doubtful.

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Toner, I., Taylor, K. M., Lockwood, G., Newman, S., & Smith, P. L. C. (1997). EEG changes during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and postoperative neuropsychological deficit: The effect of bubble and membrane oxygenators. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 11(2), 312–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-7940(96)01009-3

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