The existing technologies using electromagnetic waves or lasers are not very efficient due to the large attenuation in the aquatic environment. Ultrasound reveals a lower attenuation, and thus has been used in underwater long-distance communications. For high data-rates and real-time applications it is necessary to use frequencies in the MHz range, allowing communication distances of hundreds of meters with a delay of milliseconds. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop ultrasound transducers able to work at high frequencies and wideband, with suitable responses to digital modulations. This work shows how the acoustic impedance influences the performance of an ultrasonic emitter transducer when digital modulations are used and operating at frequencies between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The study includes a Finite Element Method and a MATLAB/Simulink simulation with an experimental validation to evaluate two types of piezoelectric materials: one based on ceramics (high acoustic impedance) with a resonance design and the other based in polymer (low acoustic impedance) designed to optimize the performance when digital modulations are used. The transducers performance for Binary Amplitude Shift Keying, On-Off Keying, Binary Phase Shift Keying and Binary Frequency Shift Keying modulations with a 1 MHz carrier at 125 kbps baud rate are compared.
Martins, M. S., Cabral, J., Lanceros-Mendez, S., & Rocha, G. (2015). Effect of the acoustic impedance in ultrasonic emitter transducers using digital modulations. Ocean Engineering, 100, 107–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.04.001