Objectives: We hypothesized that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) with higher biofilm and capsule production capability are more able to survive continuously in typhoid patients/carriers, with subsequent prolonged shedding in feces. Methods: Bacterial cell release from biofilm (produced in vitro and confirmed by specific staining and electron microscopy) and comparative cytotoxicity were studied on Caco2 cells. Functionality of the biofilm diffusion barrier was tested against ciprofloxacin. Biofilm production was graded and semi-quantified as -, +, ++, +++, and ++++. Results: Out of 30 isolates, 23 produced biofilm. The average post-treatment detection of S. Typhi in blood was 7-13 days and in stool was 13-32 days. A fall in cell count from 10<sup>4</sup> to approximately 10<sup>1</sup> over the course of 3 days as compared to total elimination of planktonic cells in 16 h after ciprofloxacin application substantiated the protective role of biofilm. Lactic dehydrogenase release ranged from 38% in non-biofilm producers to 97% in the highest biofilm producers, indicating increased pathogenic behavior. Conclusions: The period of S. Typhi clearance from typhoid patients after recovery was found to be directly related to biofilm production capability.
Abida, R., Yasra, S., Aamir, A., Amer, J., Asma, H., & Abdul, H. (2011). Effect of biofilm formation on the excretion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in feces. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 15(11), e747–e752. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2011.06.003