Weight gain is one of the major adverse effects of antipsychotics. Although mechanisms remain unclear, genetic susceptibility has become increasingly attractive as a potential mechanism that could explain a significant part of interindividual variability. Most investigations have explored genes related with the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs. An alternative approach to investigate the role that genetic factors play in weight gain secondary to antipsychotic treatment is to study those genetic variants that have been found associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 variant, the single nucleotide polymorphism that has shown the strongest association with common obesity in different populations, influences weight gain during the first year of antipsychotic treatment. We investigated also the genetic variants in other 3 strong candidates genes involved in the leptin-signaling pathway including leptin, leptin receptor, and Src homology 2. We carried out a prospective study on 239 patients with first-episode psychosis. Two hundred five patients completed the follow-up at 1 year (85.8%). Before antipsychotic treatment, the homozygous subjects for the risk allele A of the FTOrs9939609 variant had a higher body mass index at baseline (24.2 T 3.8 kg/m²) than the AT/TT group (22.82 T 3.3 kg/m2; F = 5.744; P = 0.018). After 1 year, the magnitude of weight increase was similar in the 3 genotypes defined by the rs9939609 variant. These results suggest that the pharmacological intervention accompanied by changes in energy intake and expenditure could suppress the genetic susceptibility conferred by the FTO genotype. None of the other single nucleotide polymorphisms evaluated were associated with weight gain during the first 12 months of antipsychotic therapy.
Perez-Iglesias, R., Mata, I., Amado, J. A., Berja, A., Garcia-Unzueta, M. T., García, O. M., … Crespo-Facorro, B. (2010). Effect of FTO, SH2B1, LEP, and LEPR polymorphisms on weight gain associated with antipsychotic treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30(6), 661–666. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181fae248