Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the world. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to hepatocellular injury and liver inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, induce liver injury in the rat model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Hepatoprotective cytokines, such as IL-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, are also associated with ALD. IL-6 improves ALD via activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the subsequent induction of a variety of hepatoprotective genes in hepatocytes. IL-10 inhibits alcoholic liver inflammation via activation of STAT3 in Kupffer cells and the subsequent inhibition of liver inflammation. Alcohol consumption promotes liver inflammation by increasing translocation of gut-derived endotoxins to the portal circulation and activating Kupffer cells through the LPS/Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathways. Oxidative stress and microflora products are also associated with ALD. Interactions between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and other cytokines and chemokines are likely to play important roles in the development of ALD. The present study aims to conduct a systemic review of ALD from the aspect of inflammation.
Kawaratani, H., Tsujimoto, T., Douhara, A., Takaya, H., Moriya, K., Namisaki, T., … Fukui, H. (2013). The effect of inflammatory cytokines in alcoholic liver disease. Mediators of Inflammation. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/495156