Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important cause of premature death and disability worldwide. Magnesium sulphate is shown to have a neuroprotective effect and it reverses cerebral vasospasm. Milrinone is also used in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of prophylactic magnesium sulphate and milrinone on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: The study included 90 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage classified randomly (by simple randomization) into two groups: magnesium sulphate was given as an infusion of 500 mg.day−1 without loading dose for 21 days. Group B: milrinone was given as an infusion of 0.5 μg.kg−1.min−1 without loading dose for 21 days. The cerebral vasospasm was diagnosed by mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the involved cerebral artery (mean flow velocity ≥ 120 cm.s−1), neurological deterioration by Glasgow coma scale, or angiography (the decrease in diameter of the involved cerebral artery >25%). Results: The mean cerebral blood flow velocity decreased significantly in the magnesium group compared to milrinone group through Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 (p < 0.001). The incidence of cerebral vasospasm decreased significantly with magnesium compared to milrinone (p = 0.007). The Glasgow coma scale significantly improved in the magnesium group compared to milrinone group through Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 (p = 0.036, p = 0.012, p = 0.016, respectively). The incidence of hypotension was higher with milrinone than magnesium (p = 0.012). Conclusions: The incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was significantly lower and Glasgow coma scale significantly better with magnesium when compared to milrinone. Milrinone was associated with a higher incidence of hypotension and requirement for dopamine and norepinephrine when compared to magnesium.
Soliman, R., & Zohry, G. (2019). Effect of magnesium sulphate and milrinone on cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized study. Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology, 69(1), 64–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjan.2018.09.005