Purpose: We compared the outcomes of repeat transurethral resection plus intravesical mitomycin C with initial transurethral resection of bladder plus intravesical MMC in patients with newly diagnosed pT1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in terms of recurrence, progression and overall survival. Materials and Methods: Of 148 newly diagnosed patients with T1 bladder cancer 142 were prospectively randomized in 2 groups between January 2001 and January 2005. A total of 74 patients underwent second TURB and received adjuvant MMC intravesically (group 1) and 68 patients received adjuvant MMC following the initial TURB (group 2). All repeat TURB operations were performed 2 to 6 weeks following initial TURB. Patients with incomplete resection, Cis or muscle invasive disease were excluded from study. The first dose of mitomycin C (40 mg per week for a total of 8 weeks) was instilled intravesically in all patients during the first 24 hours after the last surgery. Results: Mean followup was 31.5 months (range 6 to 48) with no difference between the 2 groups. The rate of recurrence-free survival was 86.35% (SE 0.4%), 77.67% and 68.72% in group 1, and 47.08%, 42.31% and 37.01% in group 2 for the first, second and third year, respectively (overall 74.32% vs 36.76%, log rank 0.0001). Recurrence was observed in 19 of the 74 (25.68%) patients in group 1 and in 43 of the 68 (63.24%) patients in group 2. Ten of the 19 (52.63%) patients in group 1 and 35 of the 43 (81.39%) patients in group 2 had recurrence within 12 months. Recurrence was observed in 17.6%, 25% and 60% of patients with G1, G2 and G3 tumors, respectively, in group 1. The same rates for group 2 were 25%, 64% and 90%. The RFS rate was significantly worse in the high grade group (G2 and G3) (p <0.001). Progression was observed at 4.05% for group 1 compared to 11.76% for group 2 (log rank 0.0974). OS was 91.89% and 89.71% in group 1 and 2, respectively (log rank 0.732). Conclusions: The high recurrence rate in patients who did not undergo ReTUR is due to a high residual tumor rate following initial TURB. The benefit of ReTUR is especially true for high grade tumors. Since intravesical MMC was present in both groups, this study has shown that intravesical chemotherapy does not compensate for inadequate resection. Progression does not seem to be affected by ReTUR although there was a trend favoring the ReTUR group. We recommend ReTUR for patients with primary high grade T1 disease to achieve better recurrence-free survival. © 2006 American Urological Association.
Divrik, R. T., Yildirim, Ü., Zorlu, F., & Özen, H. (2006). The Effect of Repeat Transurethral Resection on Recurrence and Progression Rates in Patients With T1 Tumors of the Bladder Who Received Intravesical Mitomycin: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Urology, 175(5), 1641–1644. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)01002-5