In this paper, a transient Finite Element (FE) method has been employed to solve the transport equations to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow and the effect of thermodiffusion on vertical solidification of a binary molten metal alloy, forming a rod. The binary system considered in this study is Sn–Bi composed of 65% Sn and 35% Bi subjected to bottom cooling. It is found that the flow of molten metal at the boundary of the mushy region plays an important role in the shape and geometry of the zone. The presence of thermodiffusion shows considerable difference in the composition of the solidified rod, compared with the one without considering the effect of thermodiffusion. Thermodiffusion also causes a faster solidification and a more uniform concentration distribution. The results of this study may be extended to similar binary and multicomponent systems in which a temperature gradient exists and the Soret coefficient is large enough so as to affect the fluid flow and concentration of the species.
Jafar-Salehi, E., Eslamian, M., & Saghir, M. Z. (2016). Effect of thermodiffusion on the fluid flow, heat transfer, and solidification of molten metal alloys. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 19(1), 511–517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2015.09.007