© 2015 Bastos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Objectives: To study the effects of age and cognition on the performance of children aged 3 to 18 years on a culturally adapted version of the 16 itemsmell identification test fromSniffin' Sticks (SS16). Methods: A series of pilots were conducted on 29 children aged 3 to 18 years old and 23 adults to produce an adapted version of the SS16 suitable for Brazilian children (SS16-Child). A final version was applied to 51 children alongside a picture identification test (PIT-SS16-Child) to access cognitive abilities involved in the smell identification task. In addition 20 adults performed the same tasks as a comparison group. Results: The final adapted SS16-Child was applied to 51 children with a mean age of 9.9 years (range 3-18 years, SD=4.25 years), of which 68.3%were girls. There was an independent effect of age (p < 0.05) and PIT-SS16-Child (p < 0.001) on the performance on the SS16- Child, and older children reached the ceiling for scoring in the cognitive and olfactory test. Pre-school children had difficulties identifying items of the test. Discussion/Conclusions: A cross-culturally adapted version of the SS16 can be used to test olfaction in children but interpretation of the results must take age and cognitive abilities into consideration.
Bastos, L. O. D., Guerreiro, M. M., Lees, A. J., Warner, T. T., & Silveira-Moriyama, L. (2015). Effects of age and cognition on a cross- cultural paediatric adaptation of the sniffin’ sticks identification test. PLoS ONE, 10(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131641