Aims: Spironolactone improves prognosis in severe heart failure (HF). We investigated its effects in patients with mild-moderate HF treated with an ACE inhibitor and beta-blocker. Methods and results: Randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, 3-month comparison of placebo and spironolactone (25 mg daily) in 40 patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I (20%), II (70%) or III (10%), with a left ventricular ejection fraction of < 40%. The mean (standard error) changes from baseline in the spironolactone and placebo groups were, respectively: i) B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) - 53.4(22.2) pg/mL and + 3.3(12.1) pg/mL, P = 0.04, ii) pro-collagen type III N-terminal amino peptide (PIIINP) - 0.6(0.2) μmol/L and + 0.02(0.2) μmol/L, P = 0.02 and iii) creatinine + 10.7(3.2) μmol/L and - 0.3(2.6) μmol/L, P = 0.01. Compared with placebo, spironolactone therapy was associated with a reduction in self-reported health-related quality of life: change in visual analog score: - 6 (3) vs. + 6 (4); P = 0.01. No differences were observed on other biochemical, neurohumoral, exercise and autonomic function assessments. Conclusion: In patients with mild-moderate HF, spironolactone reduced neurohumoral activation (BNP) and a marker of collagen turnover (PIIINP) but impaired renal function and quality of life. The benefit-risk ratio of aldosterone blockade in mild HF is uncertain and requires clarification in a large randomised trial. © 2006.
Berry, C., Murphy, N., De Vito, G., Galloway, S., Seed, A., Fisher, C., … McMurray, J. (2007). Effects of aldosterone receptor blockade in patients with mild-moderate heart failure taking a beta-blocker. European Journal of Heart Failure, 9(4), 429–434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejheart.2006.10.005