The effects of different concentrations of lead nitrate on root growth, cell division, chromosome morphology and nucleolus in root tip cells of Allium cepa were studied. The concentrations of lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) were 10-7, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 m. It was observed that lead reduces root growth and causes mitotic irregularities, including c-mitosis, anaphase bridges, and chromosome stickiness. Also, interphase cells with micronuclei, irregularly shaped nuclei and nuclei with decomposed nuclear material were noticed. The c-mitotic effect reached its maximum in the meristem at above 10-4 m Pb, when practically almost all the anomalous dividing cells are of this type. After treatment with Pb, there were many similar silver-stained particulate materials scattered in the nucleus in short, rounded meristem cells and in long, oblong root cap cells. © 1994.
Liu, D., Jiang, W., Wang, W., Zhao, F., & Lu, C. (1994). Effects of lead on root growth, cell division, and nucleolus of Allium cepa. Environmental Pollution, 86(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(94)90002-7