Effects of mechanical repetitive load on bone quality around implants in rat maxillae

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Abstract

© 2017 Uto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Greater understanding and acceptance of the new concept “bone quality”, which was proposed by the National Institutes of Health and is based on bone cells and collagen fibers, are required. The novel protein Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is associated with osteoprotection by regulating bone cells. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of mechanical loads on Sema3A production and bone quality based on bone cells and collagen fibers around implants in rat maxillae. Grade IV-titanium threaded implants were placed at 4 weeks post-extraction in maxillary first molars. Implants received mechanical loads (10 N, 3 Hz for 1800 cycles, 2 days/week) for 5 weeks from 3 weeks post-implant placement to minimize the effects of wound healing processes by implant placement . Bone structures, bone mineral density (BMD), Sema3A production and bone quality based on bone cells and collagen fibers were analyzed using microcomputed tomography, histomorphometry, immuno-histomorphometry, polarized light microscopy and birefringence measurement system inside of the first and second thread (designated as thread A and B, respectively), as mechanical stresses are concentrated and differently distributed on the first two threads from the implant neck. Mechanical load significantly increased BMD, but not bone volume around implants. Inside thread B, but not thread A, mechanical load significantly accelerated Sema3A production with increased number of osteoblasts and osteocytes, and enhanced production of both type I and III collagen. Moreover, mechanical load also significantly induced preferential alignment of collagen fibers in the lower flank of thread B. These data demonstrate that mechanical load has different effects on Sema3A production and bone quality based on bone cells and collagen fibers between the inside threads of A and B. Mechanical load-induced Sema3A production may be differentially regulated by the type of bone structure or distinct stress distribution, resulting in control of bone quality around implants in jaw bones.

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Uto, Y., Kuroshima, S., Nakano, T., Ishimoto, T., Inaba, N., Uchida, Y., & Sawase, T. (2017). Effects of mechanical repetitive load on bone quality around implants in rat maxillae. PLoS ONE, 12(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189893

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