We consider sex differences in human facial morphology in the context of developmental change. We show that at puberty, the height of the upper face, between the lip and the brow, develops differently in males and females, and that these differences are not explicable in terms of sex differences in body size. We find the same dimorphism in the faces of human ancestors. We propose that the relative shortening in men and lengthening in women of the anterior upper face at puberty is the mechanistic consequence of extreme maxillary rotation during ontogeny. A link between this developmental model and sexual dimorphism is made for the first time, and provides a new set of morphological criteria to sex human crania. This finding has important implications for the role of sexual selection in the evolution of anthropoid faces and for theories of human facial attractiveness.
Stowe, C. H., Smith, G. L., Thomas, R. L., & Whiteside, W. S. (2016). Effects of Packaging Geometry on Heat Penetration Time in Retortable Semi-Rigid Plastic Trays. International Journal of Advanced Packaging Technology, 4(1), 246–257. https://doi.org/10.23953/cloud.ijapt.26