Effects of Paroxetine, a CYP2D6 Inhibitor, on the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Hydrocodone after Coadministration with a Single-entity, Once-daily, Extended-release Hydrocodone Tablet

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Abstract

Purpose A single-entity, once-daily, extended-release formulation of hydrocodone bitartrate (HYD) has been developed for the management of moderate to severe chronic pain. Hydrocodone undergoes cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism involving the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. CYP3A4 yields norhydrocodone, a major inactive metabolite, whereas CYP2D6 yields hydromorphone, a minor active metabolite. This study examined the influence of the coadministration of paroxetine, a strong selective CYP2D6 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetic properties of hydrocodone (and hydromorphone) in healthy adults. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study, 24 healthy subjects received paroxetine 20 mg or placebo once daily for 12 days and an HYD 20-mg tablet on day 10 of each period. Findings Hydrocodone mean Cmax and t and median Tmax values were similar with paroxetine or placebo coadministration (16.8 vs 15.9 ng/mL, 8.5 vs 8.4 hours, and 18.0 vs 18.0 hours, respectively), as were mean AUC0-t and AUC0- values (342.9 vs 325.3 ng · h/mL and 346.3 vs 328.5 ng · h/mL). The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of the hydrocodone AUC and Cmax values were fully within the predetermined range of 80% to 125%, suggesting that there was no effect of multiple doses of paroxetine on systemic exposure to hydrocodone. Mean hydromorphone AUC0-t and Cmax values were decreased with paroxetine versus placebo (0.64 vs 3.8 ng · h/mL and 0.06 vs 0.19 ng/mL), whereas Tmax values remained similar (18.0 vs 16.1 hours, respectively). The mean hydromorphone AUC0- value could not be calculated. Both regimens were well tolerated; after HYD administration, the numbers of adverse events were similar between the 2 treatment regimens, and all adverse events were mild. Implications In this study, the coadministration of single-dose HYD with paroxetine at steady state did not alter systemic exposure to hydrocodone, suggesting that HYD can be coadministered with CYP2D6 inhibitors at therapeutic doses, without dosage modification.

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Kapil, R. P., Friedman, K., Cipriano, A., Michels, G., Shet, M., Mondal, S. A., & Harris, S. C. (2015). Effects of Paroxetine, a CYP2D6 Inhibitor, on the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Hydrocodone after Coadministration with a Single-entity, Once-daily, Extended-release Hydrocodone Tablet. In Clinical Therapeutics (Vol. 37, pp. 2286–2296). Excerpta Medica Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.08.007

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