Degenerated oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify fragments of ketosynthase genes from polyketide antibiotics producing Streptomyces spp. and bacterial strains enriched from soil samples. Cell lysates were used as templates in amplification, so time-consuming DNA purification was avoided. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the amino acid sequences of the amplified fragments shows a distribution of spore pigments and antibiotics in separate classes. In addition, several different subgroups form within the antibiotics group. Anthracyclines were divided into separate branches according to the starter unit used in biosynthesis. Copyright (C) 1999 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
Metsä-Ketelä, M., Salo, V., Halo, L., Hautala, A., Hakala, J., Mäntsälä, P., & Ylihonko, K. (1999). An efficient approach for screening minimal PKS genes from Streptomyces. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 180(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(99)00453-X