Li-ion cells are used in a variety of mobile and stationary applications. Their use must be safe under all conditions, even for aged cells in second-life applications. In the present study, different aging mechanisms are taken into account for accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) tests. 18650-type cells are cycled at 0 ◦ C (Li plating expected) and at 45 ◦ C (SEI growth expected). After extensive evaluation of the electrochemical results (voltage curve analysis, capacity fade, energy fade, Coulombic efficiency), the cells are tested by PostMortem analysis (CT, GD-OES, SEM) to reveal the main aging mechanisms and by ARC to test the safety behavior. Besides typical ARC results such as onset-of-self-heating, onset-of-thermal runaway and maximum temperatures, as well as acoustic responses of thermal runaway are evaluated and a method is developed to compare fresh cells and cells aged until different SOHs. It turns out that the safety of aged cells is not simply a function of the SOH. However, safety is strongly affected by the main aging mechanism and to the history of operating parameters during the life-time of the cell. Unsafe behavior is indicated by certain features in the voltage curves.
Waldmann, T., Quinn, J. B., Richter, K., Kasper, M., Tost, A., Klein, A., & Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M. (2017). Electrochemical, Post-Mortem, and ARC Analysis of Li-Ion Cell Safety in Second-Life Applications. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 164(13), A3154–A3162. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0961713jes