Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common arrhythmia in clinical practice. Several experimental models, such as tricuspid regurgitation model, tricuspid ring model, sterile pericarditis model and atrial crush injury model, have provided important information about reentrant circuit and can test the effects of antiarrhythmic drugs. Human AFL has typical and atypical forms. Typical AFL rotates around the tricuspid annulus and uses the crista terminalis and sometimes sinus venosa as the boundary. The tricuspid isthmus is a slow conduction zone and the target of radiofrequency ablation. Atypical AFL may arise from the right or left atrium. Right AFL includes upper loop reentry, free wall reentry and figure-of-8 reentry. Left AFL includes mitral annular AFL, pulmonary vein-related AFL and left septal AFL. Radiofrequency ablation of the isthmus between the boundaries can eliminate these arrhythmias. © 2009 Elsevier. All rights reserved.
Tai, C. T., & Chen, S. A. (2009). Electrophysiological mechanisms of atrial flutter. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association. Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1726-4901(09)70024-3