The renin-angiotensin system is a major regulator of body sodium, predominantly through the actions of intrarenal angiotensin II of unclear origin. We show that polarized epithelium of the proximal tubule synthesizes and secretes angiotensinogen at its apical side and that the protein can be detected in urine as a function of dietary sodium. Furthermore, we demonstrate that renin is expressed and secreted in a restricted nephron segment, the connecting tubule, also in a sodium-dependent fashion. A paracrine renin-angiotensin system operating along the entire nephron may contribute to long-term arterial pressure regulation by integrating distant tubular sodium-reabsorbing functions.
Rohrwasser, A., Morgan, T., Dillon, H. F., Zhao, L., Callaway, C. W., Hillas, E., … Lalouel, J. M. (1999). Elements of a paracrine tubular renin-angiotensin system along the entire nephron. Hypertension, 34(6), 1265–1274. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.34.6.1265