Many organisms, including plants, use the circadian clock to measure the duration of day and night. Daily rhythms in the plant circadian system are generated by multiple interlocked transcriptional/translational loops and also by spatial regulations such as nuclear translocation. GIGANTEA (GI), one of the key clock components in Arabidopsis, makes distinctive nuclear bodies like other nuclear-localized circadian regulators. However, little is known about the dynamics or roles of GI subnuclear localization. Here, we characterize GI subnuclear compartmentalization and identify unexpected dynamic changes under diurnal conditions. We further identify EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4) as a regulator of GI nuclear distribution through a physical interaction. ELF4 sequesters GI from the nucleoplasm, where GI binds the promoter of CONSTANS (. CO), to discrete nuclear bodies. We suggest that the subnuclear compartmentalization of GI by ELF4 contributes to the regulation of photoperiodic flowering.
Kim, Y., Lim, J., Yeom, M., Kim, H., Kim, J., Wang, L., … Nam, H. G. (2013). ELF4 Regulates GIGANTEA Chromatin Access through Subnuclear Sequestration. Cell Reports, 3(3), 671–677. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2013.02.021