The behavior and effect of a plasma plume on the weld penetration are greatly different between CO2 laser welding and YAG, disk or fiber laser welding. The effects of the power and the power density on the weld penetration are elucidated. Spattering leading to the formation of underfilled weld beads is controlled by inclining the laser beam. Porosity is formed from bubbles generated from the tip of the keyhole at low welding speed or from the middle part of the keyhole at high laser power density. Cracking easily occurs in pulsed spot welding of aluminum alloys. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Katayama, S., Kawahito, Y., & Mizutani, M. (2010). Elucidation of laser welding phenomena and factors affecting weld penetration and welding defects. In Physics Procedia (Vol. 5, pp. 9–17). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2010.08.024