Endocrine complications of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are common and are potentially debilitating both during and after therapy. Growth velocity slows during therapy for ALL, especially during the first year; however, children who do not receive cranial irradiation usually reach normal adult height. While growth hormone deficiency generally occurs in patients who have received 24 Gy of cranial irradiation, it may also develop in those treated with lower doses (18 Gy) of cranial radiation or with only high-dose methotrexate. Obesity commonly occurs during therapy and persists after completion of therapy. Osteopenia can occur early during therapy for ALL and can persist for many years. Adrenal insufficiency should be suspected in any child who has recently received glucocorticoid therapy, and stress doses of steroid should be administered in the event of metabolic stress. Screening of urine is useful for early detection of hyperglycemia during therapy with glucocorticoids and L-asparaginase. The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of anti-diuretic hormone is usually associated with vincristine therapy and may be aggravated by concurrent use of azole antifungals. Finally, patients who have received 18 or 24Gy of cranial irradiation may have clinical or subclinical deficiencies of thyroid hormones. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Howard, S. C., & Pui, C. H. (2002). Endocrine complications in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood Reviews. Churchill Livingstone. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-960X(02)00042-5