Endometriosis-related pneumothorax after in vitro fertilization embryo transfer procedure: A case report

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Catamenial pneumothorax is a unique clinical entity oc-curring in ovulating women at the onset of menses. It was considered rare, but in a recent report its incidence amounts to 25% of spontaneous pneumothorax surgically treated in women. 1 This justifies an increasing interest on the topic. Despite the fact that catamenial pneumothorax has been known for 5 decades, its cause has not been defined defini-tively. Thoracic endometriosis is frequently indicated as an implicated factor; however, the pathogenesis and mecha-nism that lead to thoracic endometriosis and from endome-triosis to pneumothorax are still unclear. 2,3 To our knowledge, we report the first case of a catamenial pneumothorax in a woman who underwent controlled ovar-ian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles, and we add some information to clarify its pathogenesis. CLINICAL SUMMARY In October 2006, a 32-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and acute right-sided chest pain. Her clinical history was negative except for a mild pain located on the right side of the back close to the scapula, associated with a cough re-curring every menses for 5 years. She underwent an unsuc-cessful IVF-ET cycle 2 weeks before. In August 2006, she started the hormone therapy and was initially placed on a go-nadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to suppress the pitui-tary activity. Then she received follitropin alpha starting from a fixed daily dose of 150 IU to obtain controlled ovar-ian hyperstimulation. Finally, chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 10,000 IU was administered to induce the ovula-tion. Thirteen oocytes were obtained and 2 fertilized, and 2 were implanted according to Joint Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada–Canadian Society of Fertility and Andrology Guidelines. 4




Baisi, A., Raveglia, F., De Simone, M., Calati, A. M., Leporati, A., & Cioffi, U. (2010). Endometriosis-related pneumothorax after in vitro fertilization embryo transfer procedure: A case report. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 139(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.12.056

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