The decision to select the most suitable type of energy storage system for an electric vehicle is always difficult, since many conditionings must be taken into account. Sometimes, this study can be made by means of complex mathematical models which represent the behavior of a battery, ultracapacitor or some other devices. However, these models are usually too dependent on parameters that are not easily available, which usually results in nonrealistic results. Besides, the more accurate the model, the more specific it needs to be, which becomes an issue when comparing systems of different nature. This paper proposes a practical methodology to compare different energy storage technologies. This is done by means of a linear approach of an equivalent circuit based on laboratory tests. Via these tests, the internal resistance and the self-discharge rate are evaluated, making it possible to compare different energy storage systems regardless their technology. Rather simple testing equipment is sufficient to give a comparative idea of the differences between each system, concerning issues such as efficiency, heating and self-discharge, when operating under a certain scenario. The proposed methodology is applied to four energy storage systems of different nature for the sake of illustration. 2013 IEEE.
Concha, P., Lafoz, M., Velez, P., & Arribas, J. R. (2014). Energy storage systems for electric vehicles: Performance comparison based on a simple equivalent circuit and experimental tests BT - 27th World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014, November 17, 2013 - November 20, 2013. CIEMAT (Research Organization), SpainUniversidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. https://doi.org/10.1109/EVS.2013.6914956