The Nile Delta aquifer in Egypt is among the largest groundwater reservoirs in the world. This paper presents main sources causing Fe and Mn pollution to nonconventional drainage and groundwater resources and an applied method to reduce both elements to be safe. The main environmental problems were analyzed to suggest an optimum solution to be implemented in Delta District, Egypt. Raw water samples were collected and analyzed from Gharbia Governorate's study area as it represents most Delta governorates. One of the main problems related to water in Delta is the reddish colour caused by the presence of ferrous and manganese. Iron and manganese concentrations in most samples exceeded World Health Organization and Egyptian Standard for safe water limits. Iron ranges between 0.1 & 1.33, while manganese shows 0.5 & 1.45 (mg/l) in the raw water, respectively. A (GIS) model was developed to access geostatistical analyst and mapping the probability that Fe and Mn concentration exceeds a critical threshold. Results show that the main polluting sources are from chemicals and fertilizers used in fruits farms as well from petrochemical and industrial activities. Treatment process is suggested with percentage removal of Fe & Mn exceeded 92% and 96% with residual concentrations less than 0.1 and 0.05 (mg/l), respectively. These values fulfil the Egyptian guidelines for safe water requirements. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Salem, M. G., El-Awady, M. H., & Amin, E. (2012). Enhanced removal of dissolved iron and manganese from nonconventional water resources in delta district, Egypt. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 18, pp. 983–993). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.05.113