Particulate matter, defined as particles of less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), was analyzed over the Korean Peninsula from 2001 to 2015 to examine the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on subseasonal PM10 variability. The PM10 data were obtained from 151 air quality monitoring stations provided by the Korea Environment Corporation (KECO). Lead–lag correlation analysis, which was performed to investigate the connection between NDJF (November–February) NINO3 index and seasonal mean PM10 data, did not yield any statistically significant correlations. However, using five-pentad moving-averaged PM10 data, statistically significant correlations between NDJF NINO3 index and PM10 variability were found in four subseasonal periods, with alternating positive and negative correlations. In the periods during which PM10 levels on the Korean Peninsula were positively (negatively) correlated with the ENSO index, the positive PM10 anomalies are associated with El Niño (La Niña) years, which implies that the occurrence of high-PM10 events could be modulated by the ENSO phase. In addition, this ENSO-related PM10 variation is negatively correlated with ENSO-related precipitation in the Korean Peninsula, indicating that more (less) wet deposition leads to lower (higher) PM10 level. Therefore, we conclude that the ENSO-induced precipitation anomalies over the Korean Peninsula are mainly responsible for ENSO-related PM10 variations. This study will be helpful for further identifying detailed chemistry-climate processes that control PM10 concentrations.
Wie, J., & Moon, B. K. (2017). ENSO-related PM10 variability on the Korean Peninsula. Atmospheric Environment, 167, 426–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.08.052