Maternal uniparental disomy 14 (UPD(14)mat) and related (epi)genetic aberrations affecting the 14q32.2 imprinted region result in a clinically recognizable condition which is recently referred to as Temple Syndrome (TS). Phenotypic features in TS include pre-and post-natal growth failure, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties that are also found in Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS). Thus, we examined the relevance of UPD(14)mat and related (epi)genetic aberrations to the development of SRS in 85 Japanese patients who satisfied the SRS diagnostic criteria proposed by Netchine et al and had neither epimutation of the H19-DMR nor maternal uniparental disomy 7. Pyrosequencing identified hypomethylation of the DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the MEG3-DMR in two cases. In both cases, microsatellite analysis showed biparental transmission of the homologs of chromosome 14, with no evidence for somatic mosaicism with full or segmental maternal isodisomy involving the imprinted region. FISH and array comparative genomic hybridization revealed neither deletion of the two DMRs nor discernible copy number alteration in the 14q32.2 imprinted region. Methylation patterns were apparently normal in other six disease-associated DMRs. In addition, a thorough literature review revealed a considerable degree of phenotypic overlap between SRS and TS, although body asymmetry was apparently characteristic of SRS. The results indicate the occurrence of epimutation affecting the IG-DMR and the MEG3-DMR in the two cases, and imply that UPD(14)mat and related (epi)genetic aberrations constitute a rare but important underlying factor for SRS.
M., K., S., M., K., M., K., N., S., S., T., F., … T., O. (2015). Epimutations of the IG-DMR and the MEG3-DMR at the 14q32.2 imprinted region in two patients with Silver-Russell Syndrome-compatible phenotype. European Journal of Human Genetics, 23(8), 1062–1067. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2014.234