In this paper, we present a series of analytic expressions to predict the beam dynamics in a long linear accelerator. These expressions can be used to model the linac optics, calculate the magnitude of the wakefields, estimate the emittance dilution due to misaligned accelerator components, and estimate the stability and jitter limitations. The analytic expressions are based on the results of simple physics models and are useful to understand the parameter sensitivities. They are also useful when using simple codes or spreadsheets to optimize a linac system.
Raubenheimer, T. O. (2000). Estimates of emittance dilution and stability in high-energy linear accelerators. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, 3(12). https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevstab.3.121002