Differences in HIV-1 gp120 sequence variation were examined in North American volunteers who became infected during a phase III vaccine trial using the rgp120 vaccine. Molecular adaptation of the virus in vaccine and placebo recipients from different ethnic subgroups was compared by estimating the dN/dS ratios in viruses sampled from each individual using three different methods. ANOVA analyses detected significant differences in dN/dS ratios among races (P < 0.02). gp120 sequences from the black individuals showed higher mean dN/dS ratios for all estimators (1.24-1.45) than in other races (0.66-1.35), and several pairwise comparisons involving blacks remained significant (P < 0.05) after correction for multiple tests. In addition, black-placebo individuals showed significantly (P < 0.02) higher mean dN/dS ratios (1.3-1.66) than placebo individuals from the other races (0.65-1.56). These results suggest intrinsic differences among races in immune response and highlight the need for including multiple ethnicities in the design of future HIV-1 vaccine studies and trials. © 2009 Pérez-Losada et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Pérez-Losada, M., Posada, D., Arenas, M., Jobes, D. V., Sinangil, F., Berman, P. W., & Crandall, K. A. (2009). Ethnic differences in the adaptation rate of HIV gp120 from a vaccine trial. Retrovirology, 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-6-67