Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) as a cardiac mitochondrial antioxidant and assess the efficacy of EUK-8, a salen-manganese catalytic free radical scavenger, to protect the AIF-deficient myocardium against pressure overload. Background: Oxidative stress has been postulated to provoke cell death and pathologic remodeling in heart failure. We recently characterized the apoptosis-inducing factor-deficient harlequin (Hq) mouse mutant to display excessive pressure overload-induced oxidative stress, cell death, accelerated progression to heart failure, and a reduced capacity of subsarcolemmal mitochondria to scavenge free radicals, suggesting a role for AIF as a novel mitochondrial antioxidant. Methods: Oxidative stress-sensitized Hq mutant mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts were given low-dose EUK-8 (25 mg/kg/day), an antioxidant with superoxide dismutase, catalase, and oxyradical scavenging properties, or vehicle for 4 weeks, and subjected to pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction) for 4 weeks. Myocardial geometry and function was serially assessed by echocardiography. Results: EUK-8 ameliorated survival in Hq and WT mice subjected to pressure overload. EUK-8 also improved left ventricular end-systolic dimensions and fractional shortening, prevented myocardial oxidant stress, attenuated necrotic and apoptotic cell death, and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in both mutant and WT mice. Conclusions: The protection against pressure overload-induced heart failure in Hq mice by EUK-8 substantiates the notion that AIF functions as an important mitochondrial antioxidant in the heart. Furthermore, because antioxidant treatment protected both the oxidative stress-prone Hq mouse model and WT mice against pressure overload-induced maladaptive left ventricular remodeling and cardiac decompensation, it may be useful as a novel therapeutic tool in the treatment of human heart failure. © 2006 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
van Empel, V. P. M., Bertrand, A. T., van Oort, R. J., van der Nagel, R., Engelen, M., van Rijen, H. V., … De Windt, L. J. (2006). EUK-8, a Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Mimetic, Reduces Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Ameliorates Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Failure in the Harlequin Mouse Mutant. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 48(4), 824–832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2006.02.075