Scheduling EV user's charging behavior based on charging price and applying renewable energy resources are the effective methods to release the load pressure of power grids brought about by the large-scale popularity of electric vehicles (EVs). This paper presents a novel approach for EV charging scheduling based on price negotiation. Firstly, the EV charging system framework based on price negotiation and renewable energy resources is discussed. Secondly, the price negotiation model is presented, including the initial price models and the conditions of transactions. Finally, an EV charging scheduling mechanism based on price negotiation (CSM-PN), including the price adjustment strategies of both the operator and EV users is proposed to seek a final transaction during multi-round price negotiation. Simulation results show that this novel approach can effectively improve the charging station operator's income, reduce the EV users' costs, and balance the load of the power grid while improving the efficiency of the EV charging system.
Wang, B., Hu, Y., Xiao, Y., & Li, Y. (2018). An EV charging scheduling mechanism based on price negotiation. Future Internet, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10050040