Evaluation of surface water quality and heavy metal indices of Ismailia Canal, Nile River, Egypt

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Abstract

Ismailia Canal is one of the most important branches of the Nile River in Egypt. It is the main source of drinking and irrigation water for many cities. Weighted arithmetic method of water quality index (WQI) was used to evaluate the water quality of Ismailia Canal according to drinking, irrigation and aquatic life water utilizations. The objective of the index is to transform complex water quality data into understandable and usable information by the public. The WQI values of Ismailia Canal are good to poor for drinking and aquatic life utilizations, and excellent for irrigation utilization. Metal index (MI) and pollution index (PI) were calculated to assess the contaminations of the canal water with the metals (Al<sup>+3</sup>, Cd<sup>+2</sup>. Cu<sup>+2</sup>, Fe<sup>+2</sup>, Mn<sup>+2</sup>, Ni<sup>+2</sup>, Pb<sup>+2</sup> and Zn<sup>+2</sup>). MI and PI values denote the dangerous pollution of the canal water, which is described as seriously at most sites along, in particular for drinking and fisheries utilizations. It may be attributed to the effluents of different industrial wastes arriving at the canal water. Law 48/1982 for the protection of the Nile River and its waterways against pollution must be enforced to prevent the obvious deterioration of the canal water and to improve its quality.

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Goher, M. E., Hassan, A. M., Abdel-Moniem, I. A., Fahmy, A. H., & El-Sayed, S. M. (2014). Evaluation of surface water quality and heavy metal indices of Ismailia Canal, Nile River, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 40(3), 225–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2014.09.001

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