This research aims to develop hierarchical and cladistic classifications of manufacturing system evolution, incorporating evolving and interacting product, process and production system features. The objectives then are to systematically organise manufacturing systems and their characteristics in classifications Forty-six candidate species of manufacturing systems have been identified and organised in a 4th generation hierarchical classification with 14 'genera', 6 'families' 3 'orders' and 1 'class' of discrete manufacturing. The accompanying cladistic classification hypothesises the evolutionary history of manufacturing, using 'descriptors' drawn from a library of 12 characters and 66 states. These are consistent and synthesise many of the established typologies in the literature. © 2013 The Authors.
Baldwin, J. S., Rose-Anderssen, C., Ridgway, K., Boettinger, F., Michen, M., Agyapong-Kodua, K., … Krain, R. (2013). The evolution of manufacturing SPECIES. In Procedia CIRP (Vol. 7, pp. 187–192). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2013.05.032