This paper documents entry and capacity expansion in US long-distance fiberoptic networks before and during the telecom boom. It disentangles the many swaps and leases between networks in order to measure owned route miles versus route miles shared with other carriers. Entry is still extensive, but more moderate when these shared miles are not counted. It concludes that entry was excessive primarily with regard to swaps and leases, but less so with regard to the physical building of the networks. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hogendorn, C. (2011). Excessive(?) entry of national telecom networks, 19902001. Telecommunications Policy, 35(11), 920–932. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2011.09.003