Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have important roles during osseointegration. This study determined (i) if MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs)/exosomes can be immobilized on titanium (Ti) surfaces and influence the behavior of MSCs, (ii) if the response is differentially affected by EVs from expanded vs differentiated MSCs and (iii) if the EV protein cargos predict the functional features of the exosomes. EVs secreted by human adipose-derived MSCs were isolated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed using nanoparticle tracking analysis, Western blotting and relative quantitative mass spectrometry. Fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cell counting assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze MSC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Exosome immobilization on Ti promoted MSC adhesion and spreading after 24 h and proliferation after 3 and 6 days, irrespective of whether the exosomes were obtained from expansion or differentiation conditions. Immobilized exosomes upregulated stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1α) gene expression. Cell adhesion molecules and signaling molecules were abundant in the exosomal proteome. The predicted functions of the equally-abundant proteins in both exosome types were in line with the observed biological effects mediated by the exosomes. Thus, exosomes derived from MSCs and immobilized on Ti surfaces interact with MSCs and rapidly promote MSC adhesion and proliferation. These findings provide a novel route for modification of titanium implant surfaces.
Wang, X., Shah, F. A., Vazirisani, F., Johansson, A., Palmquist, A., Omar, O., … Thomsen, P. (2020). Exosomes influence the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells on titanium surfaces. Biomaterials, 230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119571