This study sought to determine the in-flight performance of footballs in a wind free environment to validate against simulated flight performance based on measured wind tunnel data. A mechanical kicker was used to provide consistent kicking parameters capturing flight trajectories using High Speed Video and a radar tracking system. Simulated trajectories using the same initial conditions were generated using aerodynamic drag and lateral force data acquired in a low speed wind tunnel. The results demonstrate that the ball performance ranking based on RMS deviation in-flight is the same for the real kicks and that predicted from the wind tunnel tests.
Rogers, D., Passmore, M., Harland, A., Jones, R., Holmes, C., & Lucas, T. (2010). An experimental validation method of wind tunnel measurements on FIFA approved footballs using kicking tests in wind-free conditions. In Procedia Engineering (Vol. 2, pp. 2481–2486). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2010.04.019