Symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are the cry for help, reflecting not only the physical aspects of the disease but the impact on lifestyle, anxiety, depression and expectations of the patient. Studies consistently show a difference in patients' self-assessed functional classification compared to investigator reported NYHA classification. Moreover, patient self-assessed symptoms have recently been shown to independently predict hospitalisation and mortality over 5 years. Recognition of symptoms and appreciation of their importance justifies the use of a structured assessment in order to provide optimal medical care for patients with CHF. A model of how to structure symptom assessment equally with signs is presented in this paper. © 2005 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
I., E., J.G.F., C., B., A., & K., S. (2005). Exploring symptoms in chronic heart failure. European Journal of Heart Failure. I. Ekman, Department of Nursing, Sahlgrenska Academy, Goteborg University, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden. E-mail: email@example.com: Elsevier. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=emed7&NEWS=N&AN=2005363725