Background: There is evidence that the energetic demand of metabolically active tissue is associated with day-to-day food intake (EI). However, the extent to which behavioural components of total daily energy expenditure (EE) such as activity energy expenditure (AEE) are also associated with EI is unknown. Therefore, the present study examined the cross-sectional associations between body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), AEE and EI. Methods: Data for 242 individuals (114 males; 128 females; BMI = 25.7 ± 4.9 kg/m2) were collated from the baseline control conditions of five studies employing common measures of body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and RMR (indirect calorimetry). Daily EI (weighed-dietary records) and EE (FLEX heart rate) were measured over 6–7 days, and AEE was calculated as total daily EE minus RMR. Results: Linear regression indicated that RMR (ß = 0.39; P < 0.001), fat mass (ß = −0.26; P < 0.001) and AEE (ß = 0.18; P = 0.002) were independent predictors of mean daily EI, with AEE adding ≈3% of variance to the model after controlling for age, sex and study (F(10, 231) = 18.532, P < 0.001; R2 = 0.445). Path analyses indicated that the effect of FFM on mean daily EI was mediated by RMR (P < 0.05), while direct (β = 0.19; P < 0.001) and indirect (β = 0.20; P = 0.001) associations between AEE and mean daily EI were observed. Conclusions: When physical activity was allowed to vary under free-living conditions, AEE was associated with mean daily EI independently of other biological determinants of EI arising from body composition and RMR. These data suggest that EE per se exerts influence over daily food intake, with both metabolic (RMR) and behavioral (AEE) components of total daily EE potentially influencing EI via their contribution to daily energy requirements.
Hopkins, M., Duarte, C., Beaulieu, K., Finlayson, G., Gibbons, C., Johnstone, A. M., … Stubbs, R. J. (2019). Activity energy expenditure is an independent predictor of energy intake in humans. International Journal of Obesity, 43(7), 1466–1474. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0308-6