This study investigates different UV doses (mJ/cm2) and the effect of dark incubation on the survival of the algae Tetraselmis suecica, to simulate ballast water treatment and subsequent transport.Samples were UV irradiated and analyzed by flow cytometry and standard culturing methods. Doses of ≥400 mJ/cm2 rendered inactivation after 1 day as measured by all analytical methods, and are recommended for ballast water treatment if immediate impairment is required. Irradiation with lower UV doses (100-200 mJ/cm2) gave considerable differences of inactivation between experiments and analytical methods. Nevertheless, inactivation increased with increasing doses and incubation time. We argue that UV doses ≥100 mJ/cm2 and ≤200 mJ/cm2 can be sufficient if the water is treated at intake and left in dark ballast tanks. The variable results demonstrate the challenge of giving unambiguous recommendations on duration of dark incubation needed for inactivation when algae are treated with low UV doses.
Olsen, R. O., Hoffmann, F., Hess-Erga, O. K., Larsen, A., Thuestad, G., & Hoell, I. A. (2016). Ultraviolet radiation as a ballast water treatment strategy: Inactivation of phytoplankton measured with flow cytometry. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 103(1–2), 270–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.12.008