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In 2005 the German National Library of Science and Technology started assigning DOI names to datasets to allow stabile linking between articles and data. In 2009 this work lead to the funding of DataCite, a global consortium of libraries and information institutions with the aim to enable scientists to use datasets as independently published records that can be shared, referenced and cited.
Brase, J. (2014). Making Data Citeable: DataCite. In Opening Science (pp. 327–329). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00026-8_26