Background: There is some evidence that the association of fish and marine fatty acids with stroke risk differs between men and women. We investigated the gender-specific associations of habitual intake of the marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and fish on incident stroke in a population-based study in the Netherlands. Methods: We prospectively followed 20,069 men and women, aged 20-65 years, without cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Habitual diet was assessed with a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of stroke was assessed through linkage with mortality and morbidity registers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: During 8-13 years of follow-up, 221 strokes occurred. In women, an inverse dose-response relation (P-trend = 0.02) was observed between EPA-DHA intake and incident stroke, with an HR of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.27-0.91) in the top quartile of EPA-DHA (median 225 mg/d) as compared to the bottom quartile (median 36 mg/d). In men, the HR (95%CI) for the top quartile of EPA-DHA intake was 0.87 (0.51-1.48) (P-trend = 0.36). Similar results were observed for fish consumption and stroke incidence. Conclusion: A higher EPA-DHA and fish intake is related to a lower stroke risk in women, while for men an inverse association could not be demonstrated. © 2012 de Goede et al.
de Goede, J., Verschuren, W. M. M., Boer, J. M. A., Kromhout, D., & Geleijnse, J. M. (2012). Gender-specific associations of marine n-3 fatty acids and fish consumption with 10-year incidence of stroke. PLoS ONE, 7(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033866