The synthesis of zeolite-supported Mo carbide species was studied by testing different reduction/carburization conditions applied to a zeolite-supported Mo oxide catalyst, with the aim to find the optimized treatment conditions necessary to form stable supported Mo carbide catalysts ex situ for application in methane dehydroaromatization reaction. Four types of treatment were performed and studied using temperature-programmed reduction and carburization profiles: (1) heating the catalyst in a reducing gas, H2, up to reaction temperature and switching to CH4; (2) heating the catalyst in a reducing gas, H2, mixed with dilute CH4; (3) heating the catalyst in CH4 up to reaction temperature; and (4) heating the catalyst in an inert gas (commonly He) up to reaction temperature and then switching to CH4 or to H2 followed by CH4 or to H2/CH4 mixture. Each of these processes were stopped at intermediate points to analyze the phases that were present in order to identify the structural evolution of the supported Mo carbides that originate from the supported Mo oxides. Once the supported carbides were formed, they were quenched under the same gas mixture, and then they were each tested in methane dehydroaromatization via previous heating to reaction temperature in He flow. Despite all of them showing only presence of Mo2C species on HZSM-5, the catalytic properties were dramatically different. Catalysts treated in H2 or CH4/H2 showed remarkably higher stability. These catalysts exhibited a higher Mo dispersion and thus exposure on the active surface.
Rahman, M., Infantes-Molina, A., Boubnov, A., Bare, S. R., Stavitski, E., Sridhar, A., & Khatib, S. J. (2019). Increasing the catalytic stability by optimizing the formation of zeolite-supported Mo carbide species ex situ for methane dehydroaromatization. Journal of Catalysis, 375, 314–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2019.06.002